Modern physiology requires a comprehensive understanding of the integration of tissues and organs throughout the mammalian body, including the cooperation between structure and function at the cellular and molecular levels governed by gene and protein expression. While a daunting task, learning is facilitated by identifying common, effective signaling pathways mediated by a variety of factors employed by nature to preserve and sustain homeostatic life. As a leading example, the cellular interplay between intracellular concentration of Ca+2 increases, and changes in plasma membrane potential is integral to coordinating blood flow, governing the exocytosis of neurotransmitters, and modulating gene expression and cell effector secretory functions. Further, in this manner, understanding the systemic interplay between the cardiovascular and nervous systems has become more important than ever as human populations life prolongation, aging and mechanisms of cellular oxidative signaling are utilized for sustaining life. Altogether, physiological research enables our identification of clear and precise points of transition from health to the development of multi-morbidity during the inevitable aging disorders (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart failure, peptic ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease, age-related macular degeneration, cancer). With consideration of all organ systems (e.g., brain, heart, lung, gut, skeletal and smooth muscle, liver, pancreas, kidney, eye) and the interactions thereof, this Physiology Series will address aims of resolving (1) Aging physiology and progress of chronic diseases (2) Examination of key cellular pathways as they relate to calcium, oxidative stress, and electrical signaling, and (3) how changes in plasma membrane produced by lipid peroxidation products can affect aging physiology, covering new research in the area of cell, human, plant and animal physiology.